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Page 1(Introduction)

Page 2 (Behaviorism, Unconscious, Skinner)

Psychology in 1950's & beyond Psychology today (wrap up)
Fall in Love with ASP.NET Again (or for the Very First Time)

Psychology is a branch of science that studies as well as practice cognitive process to behaviorism. Ergo-'study of the mind'. (The term 'psychology' originated from the Greek word 'psyche', which means the soul. Second part is 'logos' which in Greek means 'study of'). It was not until the early 18th century when the term 'psychology' was gaining recognition of use.

Profession wise, you study psychology to apply the studies attained and to use them to critical applications. For an example, there have been studies that an individual will most likely be saved from a physical abuse in a sparse populated area. Where as, it is less likely someone will actually help you in a crowded street.

Now taking that aside, what in our minds program us to have the urge to help out others yet less chance of assisting in crowded areas? Companies and organizations wants to know. After all, should they deploy their new shopping center in a quiet suburb or crowded urban areas? Also the question arise regarding safety of consumers from a corporate point of it worth the possibility of buyers being attacked in parking lots in exchange for their money? From analytical studies to psychology, both are used to produce commercial revenues and beyond. Basically, people need to understand how our minds work to operate a motion of civilization. Which basically is, keep goods and services embedded in society, keep people safe, and so forth.

When modern psychology as we know it began. 

Wilhelm Wundt and G. Stanley Hall both played a critical role in the development of psychology. Wundt established the best practice of studying psychology, which the idea was received quit well in his home country, Germany. Secondly G. Stanley Hall, an American, was receptive of Wundt's beliefs of psychology. It was at one point when Hall decided to take Wundt's teachings to America which eventually planted the seed of American modern psychology.

More information about Wilhelm Wundt & G. Stanley Hall --> Right side of this.

Schools Dispute.

As the study of psychology broaden throughout schools of America. Each had their own studies and research which simply led to 'facts'. While competing schools disputed with each other as to what findings should be considered the ultimate de-facto standard of psychology, it all came down to structuralism versus functionalism.

Structuralism - Study of psychology to understand the concept of consciousness into it's core building blocks. Therefore for, ultimately studying how each are related to each other. For an example, the sense of vision and feelings were commonly used to analyze consciousness through a method called, introspection (enabling one's self to be fully aware of one's consciousness in a systematic order).

Edward Titchener was the primary drive to the ideology of structuralism. He was taught at Cornell University, yet he graduated from Wundt's Leipzig laboratory. Titchener basically brought his own version of Wundt's work into America.


Functionalism - Practically the same definition of structuralism. However, instead of studying the building blocks of consciousness and the relations, it is the study of the purpose or the function of consciousness.

William James (1842-1910) was an advocate of functionalism teaching. He is noted for his popular published book 'Principles of Psychology' (1890). He admired the work of Charles Darwin, especially the belief of 'natural selection' (species with the most admirable genes have a better chance of mating to pass onto the next generation). In this sense, James concluded that to approach the study of psychology, it is the functions that needs to be investigated instead of structure of consciousness. Also concluding that consciousness is a process of free flow of thoughts which he labeled as "stream of consciousness".

Structuralists were more inclined to resorting to laboratories to their studies. On the contrary, functionalists were more interested in how people behaved or adapted to their surrendering environment. People such as James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey experimented with the idea of functionalism to the next level. (patterns of development in children, comparing and contrasting behavioral characteristics of sexes, etc.) With more broad yet specific ideas of approaching the study of psychology, it had caught the attention of women in getting involved of field of psychology.

Wilhelm Wundt G. Stanley Hall

Wilhelm Wundt and why is he important?

A German professor (1832-1920) who wanted to make the practice of psychology an independent study rather than a sub branch of philosophy or physiology.

You see during his time, the country of Germany was doing well in the sense of intellectually. So universities were receptive of expanding new horizon of studies. It was not until his ideas of how we should study psychology gained good recognition where he established the first formal laboratory for the study of psychology! (In 1879 that is)

Wundt core value of studying approach.

Psychology should be modeled after chemistry and physics. Since Wundt believed the core study of psychology was 'consciousness'. To really be able to analyze that, philosophy and physiology won't help too much. You can think and reason how consciousness works yet the true science is what tells us WHY it operates in a certain way.

G. Stanley Hall and who is this guy?

Hall studied with Wundt for a brief time, and at one point he felt it was a good idea for him to bring some of Wundt's ideology to America. It was at John Hopkins University where he initiated a research laboratory dedicated to psychology (1883). Four years later, he published America's first journal in the field of psychology.

Hall's further contribution of psychology in America.

In 1892 he promoted the idea of creating American Psychological Association (APA), where he was elected as the first president of the board. Currently the APA has over 155,000 members.


Women who have contributed to early psychology.
Calkins Washburn Hollingworth

Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)

  • Studied under William James.
  • Created a technique to analyze memory management.
  • First woman to become the president of American Psychological Association in 1905.

Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)

  • First woman to get a PHD in psychology.
  • Wrote 'The Animal Mind', which assisted in the emergence of behaviorism.
  • In 1921 she was the second woman to serve as the president of APA.

Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939)

  • First person to coin the term 'gifted' to label children who did exceptionally well in intelligence tests.
  • Refuted the myth notion that during phase of menstrual cycle in a woman, their performance decrements.
  • Did pioneering work in mental retardation, gifted children, and adolescent development.


Daniel Combs